The results are displayed with the most significant key items at the top of the list by sorting on the LL log-likelihood value which indicates the significance of the difference. We should note that the semantic analysis is not intended to directly discover the intentions of the authors but to help us describe the language that they employ. Undoubtedly, there will be some discrepancy, as in other forms of advertising, where part of the goal of the advert is to sell what the author has to offer to an interested reader.
We have selected classified ads from the Telegraph.
These are as follows: The Telegraph. At the time of our study, KindredSpirits had more than 22, members with an age range of 18 to Around 21, members are in two groups of roughly equal size, men looking for women and women looking for men. As this is a live online dating service, the number of classified ads changes constantly. At the time of writing, there were women looking for women and men looking for men in the UK between the ages 18 and All KindredSpirits members are required to write a 40 to 1, words long narrative, describing themselves and their ideal match. For this study, 80 narratives in each search category were included.
Interestingly, narratives of men looking for women and women looking for men were almost twice as long as those of looking for a same-sex relationship see Table 3. This is also the reason why commitment is not prominent in our study as traits associated with this category are classed under a number of different categories in Wmatrix.
These are summarised in Table 4. Further details are shown in the following subsections. Figure 1 displays a screenshot of the key word cloud giving the most significant items more significant items are shown in larger font size. Figure 1. Table 5 below gives some examples of the words and multiword expressions from the top ten semantic domains.
Rather than comparing the whole corpus to a reference dataset, we now turn to results obtained by direct comparison of sub-corpora. Figure 2 presents a screenshot of the key word cloud. Figure 2. Screenshot of the top key words used by men looking for women relative to women looking for men. Table 6 provides examples from the statistically significant key domains in the men-looking-for-women dataset.
Table 6. Key semantic domains in the language of men looking for women relative to women looking for men. Figure 3 presents a screenshot of the key word cloud with more significant items in larger font size. Figure 3. Screenshot of the top key words used by women looking for men relative to men looking for women. Table 7 provides examples from the statistically significant key domains in the women-looking-for-men dataset. Table 7. Key semantic domains in the language of women looking for men relative to men looking for women. Men-looking-for-men data was compared with both women-looking-for-women and men-looking-for-women data.
Figure 4 presents a screenshot of the key word cloud from Wmatrix. Figure 4. Figure 5 presents a screenshot of the key word cloud in this category. Figure 5. These two sets of key words indicate that words describing social skills particularly, having a good sense of humour and being a good listener and words related to resources in providing accommodation for meetings appear among the statistically significant key words. Table 8 provides examples from the statistically significant key domains in the men-looking-for-men dataset when compared with women looking for women.
Table 8. Comparing statistically significant key domains in the men-looking-for-men data with the men-looking-for-women data refines these findings somewhat more. This comparison identified 12 key semantic domains as presented in Table 9. From this, it emerged that both general relationships based on friendship and sexual relationships were most significant for gay men, with general relationships as the second most significant semantic domain and sexual relationship third. Also, this comparison has identified numerous important personality traits, some of which could represent social skills such as being informal and friendly, broad-minded and tolerant, peaceful and relaxed , rather than just physical characteristics, although age still shows as a significant semantic domain.
Table 9. Women-looking-for-women ads were compared with both men-looking-for-men and women-looking-for-men ads.
Figure 6 presents a screenshot of the key word cloud. Figure 6. Figure 7 presents a screenshot of the key word cloud in this category. Figure 7.
Words describing commitment do not appear in our list, although perhaps words honesty and trustworthy can indirectly indicate commitment. Table 10 provides examples of the statistically significant key domains in the women-looking-for-women dataset when compared with men looking for men. Table Comparing statistically significant key domains in the women-looking-for-women data with the women-looking-for-men data identified 5 key semantic domains as presented in Table Accompany, accompanied, companion, companionship, friend, friends, friendship, friendships, mate, partner, partners, penpals, soulmate, get on with, meet, meet up, meeting, relationship, relationships.
The comparison of women looking for women to women looking for men has shown that general relationships based on friendship rather than sexual relationships is a significant category in the language of classified ads for women looking for a same-sex relationship.
Interestingly, physical weight as a possible indicator of attractiveness is one of the key semantic domains. This comparison shows some similarity with the comparison of men looking for women with women looking for men in that both physical weight and a personality trait of unselfishness emerge as statistically significant. The research described here examined the language used in online dating ads and provided a comparison of four dating subgroups as follows: We employed a corpus-based methodology and a large number of classified ads downloaded from the Telegraph.
A number of similarities were observed allowing us to confirm some findings from previous work. Here, we summarise these finding across the four subgroup comparisons:. Men looking for women. Attractiveness is statistically significant, but only after education and the USAS category Unselfish.
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Physical weight as a possible indicator of attractiveness appears as a key semantic domain. Being considerate classed under the unselfish category in our study appears more statistically significant in our dataset than attractiveness. Interestingly, the In-Power category traditionally associated with a male role finds its way into the statistically significant semantic domains in our men-looking-for-women data.
Women looking for men. There is some indication that attractiveness illustrated by expressions set their world on fire and elusive spark in the statistically significant On Fire category is of importance to women looking for men. Men looking for men. On the keyword level, words describing social skills particularly, having a good sense of humour or GSOH , and being a good listener and words related to resources in providing accommodation for meetings appear among the statistically significant key words in this dataset.
However, the comparison with the men-looking-for-women data has established that both general relationship based on friendship and sexual relationship are significant for gay men, with general relationship as the second most significant semantic domain and sexual relationship the third. Discretion is another important feature in online dating gay discourse. Women looking for women.
However, on the key semantic domain level, the Social Actions, States and Processes category has emerged as second most statistically significant. The comparison of women looking for women with women looking for men has shown that a general relationship based on friendship rather than a sexual relationship is portrayed as being significant for women looking for a same-sex relationship. Our methodology is more detailed and more objective than previous research since it is not based on intuition and interview-based methods. We have also carried out more sub-group comparisons as described above.
As further development, it would be interesting to repeat the same procedures for other age groups in order to see if there were age-related differences in the use of language in online dating classified ads. British National Corpus.
Telegraph Dating. Ethology and Sociobiology Ethology Buss, David M. Behavioral and Brain Sciences Daneback, Kristian. Love and Sexuality on the Internet. University of Gothenburg Faculty of Social Sciences. Dunbar, R. Evolutionary Psychology: Fiore, Andrew R.
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Scharlott, Bradford W. Communication Research 23 1: Samantha rone pictures and movies and rate your phone or friendship with pof, adult friendfinder is the world! Figure 2. Female Woman, women, lady, ladies, female, femme, fem, feminine, femininity, girl, girls 2 Time: Conclusion Sources and resources References.
Thousand Oaks, Calif.: McArthur, Ton. Longman Lexicon of Contemporary English. Miller, Geoffrey F.